Our undergrad Matt Souza found this fish hunting another fish on our GoPros from Waquoit NERR in Cape Cod. Check out that tail!!! Any idea what this could be?
Some very cool new research has come out of the Pennings Lab at the University of Houston last month. Huy Vu et al reports, in Ecology, that purple marsh crabs Sesarma reticulatum can be responsible for massive changes in salt marsh hydrology! Through extensive burrowing and consumption of vegetation, crabs extend, build, and move salt marsh creeks.
Photo from Vu et al 2016
Vu found that the purple marsh crab excavates a massive amount of sediment per day, sometimes almost twice as much as other marsh crabs. In addition, purple marsh crab density was highly correlated with decreases in above and belowground biomass and plant height. These crab activities, especially when they were concentrated in the “dead zone” at the leading edge of a marsh creek as Vu calls it, drastically change the marsh sediment. Speaking from experience, walking in these crab infested areas is very difficult! The soil stability is very low, so its not hard to imagine how constant water flow over those areas can enlarge creek heads. To top it off, Vu et al simulated purple marsh crab herbivory at some of these creek heads and found that creeks expanded 38% more where plants were removed in similar ways as herbivory!
The purple marsh crab has been featured on MarshLife before and this is a very cool addition to the already exciting life history of this unique crab. Across its range the PMC can cause massive erosion (New England), prey on keystone consumers (Georgia), regulate ecosystem functions (Georgia), over-graze marsh grass (Southeast US), and change the whole flow of salt marsh creeks (SE). Considering that this crab is abundant all throughout marshes up and down the Atlantic coast it begs the question, is the purple marsh crab the most important salt marsh consumer?! I say yes 🙂
HHMI made this amazing video about trophic cascades a few weeks ago. I HIGHLY recommend watching this. Featuring kings of ecology Jim Estes and Bob Paine
Like the video says, Paine’s research inspired an explosion of studies in different ecosystems about the role of keystone species. Salt marshes have too shown to be dominated by keystone species! Trophic cascades have been found in salt marshes in the Southeast and in New England, where predators such as fish, blue crabs, or terrapins control the density of Spartina alterniflora consuming herbivores. Trophic cascades and keystone species are, in my opinion, some of the most exciting aspects of community ecology!
We are slowly working our way through insect samples from salt marshes around New England and our undergrad Martina found something pretty insane recently. The following picture is of a planthopper in a Nantucket salt marsh
If you zoooooooooooooooom in you can see a weird little bubble on the abdomen of these little hoppers. If you zoooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooom in even further you can kind of see that that bubble has a head. What the heck is that?!
I had to consult marsh arthropod expert, and all around awesome ecologist, Dr Gina Wimp on this. Here is what she said:
This is one of my favorite things in the whole wide world – a parasitoid!!! This is a Dryinid parasitoid (Haplogonatopus). You are looking at the abdomen of the parasitoid protruding-out of the planthopper. The parasitoid does not kill the planthopper (usually), but sterilizes it. These planthoppers should consider themselves lucky, I have seen planthoppers with 3-4 parasitoids lined-up on the abdomen.
The other fun parasitoid that the planthoppers get is in the Strepsiptera (Elenchus). The female just looks like a dark plate on the abdomen, but you can actually see the face of the male on the side of the planthopper’s abdomen!! The male is winged, the female is not, and the male mates with her while she is still in the planthopper.”
Thanks Gina for that ID and if you want to hear more from her, check out the #MarshChat from a few months ago!
#MarshChat with Rebecca Atkins (@RL_Atkins on twitter)
This week’s #marshchat is with Rebecca Atkins, a PhD student at the University of Georgia. Take a look at our chat where we talk about how different sized snails affect the marsh differently. We also chat about some of the insights Rebecca has gotten from travelling to tons of marshes from Florida to Virginia. What areas have the biggest snails? What has the smallest? What does that mean for the marsh?!
Rebecca’s work is ongoing but she has published some previous work on snail body size, metabolic demand, and marsh productivity that you can find here:
EDIT: I just realized that I messed up during the MarshChat and didnt have any of the pictures that we were talking about displayed. So they are displayed here!
We just had another awesome MarshChat, this time with Dr Gina Wimp from Georgetown! Gina is a fantastic ecologist who focuses on the effects of changes (i.e. fragmentation, nutrients) on the UNREAL marsh arthropod food web. Seriously, its crazy! Gina tells me about intense specialization by plant hoppers and their predators and I even heard a story about spider nuptials.
I added a new feature to the MarshChat this week which was the Marsh Rapid Fire Round, where we learned that Gina’s marshes feature some of the coolest marsh animals, Diamondback Terrapins, and that her former advisor, the legendary Bob Denno, once laid under a giant fallen tree branch, pretending to have been hit by it to mess with his students
As part of our MIT Sea Grant project on marsh life (which funds this site!), we’re beginning a series of conversations with Salt Marsh scientists, managers, and folk who just plain love salt marshes. Marc Hensel, our Mr. Marsh, will be hosting. We’re kicking it off today with Christine Angelini at the University of Florida. So come on by and check it out! #marshlife!
Also, the paper Christine and Marc referenced about mussels is
Angelini C, van der Heide T., Griffin J.N., Morton J.P., Derksen-Hooijberg M., Lamers P.M., Smolders A.J.P., Silliman B.R. Foundation species’ overlap enhances biodiversity and ecosystem multifunctionality from the patch to landscape scale. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 282: 2015.0421. http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/282/1811/20150421